Blocked ducts


A plugged (or blocked) duct is an area of the breast where milk flow is obstructed.

Breast engorgement


Breast engorgement occurs in the mammary glands due to expansion and pressure exerted by the synthesis and storage of breast milk. It is also a main factor in altering the ability of the infant to latch-on.

Combination feeding


Combination feeding usually refers to mums who feed from the breast for some feeds and from a bottle for other feeds (whether breastmilk or formula milk).

Common Assessment Framework


The CAF is a shared assessment and planning framework for use across all children's services and all local areas in England. It aims to help the early identification of children's additional needs and promote co-ordinated service provision to meet them.

Confidentiality Agreement


A confidentiality agreement is a confidential disclosure agreement, proprietary information agreement, or secrecy agreement, is a legal contract between at least two parties that outlines confidential material, knowledge, or information that the parties wish to share with one another for certain purposes, but wish to restrict access to or by third parties.

Cows Milk Protein Allergy


Cow's milk protein allergy is the abnormal reaction by the body's immune system to protein found in cow's milk.

Cradle cap


Cradle cap is a yellowish, patchy, greasy, scaly and crusty skin rash that occurs on the scalp of recently born babies.

Early Years Foundation Stage


The Early Years Foundation Stage (EYFS) is a comprehensive statutory framework that sets the standards for the learning, development and care of children from birth to five in England. All registered early years settings, maintained and independent schools are required to meet the learning, development and welfare requirements in the EYFS.

Erythema toxicum


Erythema toxicum is a common, splotchy red rash that can affect newborns. Some have firm yellow or white bumps surrounded by a flare of red. The rash tends to come and go on different parts of the body. It is most common on the second day of life, but can appear at birth or within the first two weeks. The individual splotches may stay for only a few hours, or for several days. There is no treatment – it will gradually disappear.

Every Child Matters Agenda


Every Child Matters: Change for Children' is a national approach to improving the wellbeing of children and young people from birth to the age of 19.

Faltering Growth


Faltering growth after the early days of life is characterised by a slower rate of weight gain than expected for age, sex, and current weight.



Galactorrhea is the result of the influence of the mother’s hormones on the baby before delivery. Babies with galactorrhea have significantly larger breast nodules than babies without galactorrhea.

Gastro-Oesophageal Reflux (GOR)


GOR is a normal physiological process which usually happens after eating in healthy infants, children, young people and adults, so in babies who are often lying horizontal for feeding and sleeping, milk simply comes up, and there is no retching as associated with a gastric infection.

Gastro Oesophageal Reflux Disease (GORD)


Gastro- oesophageal reflux disease (GORD) is when reflux is associated with other symptoms like failure to thrive or weight loss, feeding or sleeping problems, chronic respiratory disorders, oesophagitis, haematemesis.

Integrated Working


Integrated working is where everyone supporting children work together effectively to put the child at the centre, meet their needs and improve their lives.



Jaundice (Hyperbilirubinaemia) is caused by the build-up of bilirubin in the blood. Bilirubin is a yellow substance produced when red blood cells are broken down. Jaundice is common in newborn babies because babies have a high level of red blood cells in their blood, which are broken down and replaced frequently.



Lactase is the enzyme that breaks down the milk sugar lactose into glucose and galactose.



Lactose is the main sugar in milk and other dairy products.

Lactose Intolerance


Lactose Intolerance is the inability to digest lactose, a component of milk and some other dairy products. The basis for lactose intolerance is the lack of an enzyme called lactase in the small intestine. The most common symptoms of lactose intolerance are diarrhoea, bloating, and gas.

Lead Professional


Lead professionals work with children with additional (including complex) needs who require an integrated package of support from more than one practitioner. The lead professional takes the lead to coordinate provision and act as a single point of contact for a child and their family when a TAC is required.



Mastitis is a condition which causes a woman's breast tissue to become painful and inflamed.



Relating to or characteristic of a microorganism, especially a bacterium causing disease or fermentation.



Milia are tiny whiteheads on your baby’s face. They will disappear on their own.



Meconium is the earliest stool of a mammalian infant. Unlike later faeces, meconium is composed of materials ingested during the time the infant spends in the uterus: intestinal epithelial cells, lanugo, mucus, amniotic fluid, bile, and water.

Multi Agency Team Working


Multi-agency working brings together practitioners from different sectors and professions within the workforce to provide integrated support to children and their families, for example a ‘team around the child' (TAC).

Neonatal jaundice


Neonatal jaundice is a yellowish discoloration of the white part of the eyes and skin in a newborn baby due to high bilirubin level.



PEAL training supports all early years settings to meet requirements of the Early Years Foundation Stage (EYFS) and Children's Centre Practice Guidance to work in partnership with parents to enhance children's learning and development.



Phototherapy is treatment with light, which oxidates the bilirubin to clear it rapidly. Oxidating the bilirubin makes it dissolve and the baby’s liver is better able to break it down and excrete it from their blood.



Prebiotic is a specialized plant fibre that beneficially nourishes the good bacteria already in the large bowel or colon.



Probiotics introduces good bacteria into the gut.



The process of protecting children from abuse or neglect, preventing impairment of their health and development, and ensuring they are growing up in circumstances consistent with the provision of safe and effective care that enables children to have optimum life chances and enter adulthood successfully.” Working together to safeguard children, 2006

Silent Reflux


Silent reflux is described as reflux where the regurgitation is swallowed rather than being spat out. Babies may cry and show signs of distress but not posset. Symptoms may otherwise be identical to GOR.



A suppository is another way to deliver a drug. It's a small, round or cone-shaped object that you put in your body, often into your bottom.

Team Around The Child (TAC)


A Team Around the Child (TAC) is a multi-disciplinary team of practitioners established on a case by case basis to support a child or young person. This is also often referred to as a Team Around the Young Person (TAYP).
The members of the TAC brings develop and deliver a package of solution focused support the needs of the an individual child or young person, often identified as part of the CAF process.

The Common Core of skills and knowledge


The common core describes the skills and knowledge that everyone who works with children and young people (including volunteers) is expected to have. The six areas of expertise offer a single framework to underpin, multi-agency and integrated working, professional standards, training and qualifications across the childrens workforce.

The Rome III Criteria


The Rome III Criteria for Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders includes infantile colic, with diagnostic criteria which includes all of the following in infants from birth to four months of age: paroxysms of irritability, fussing or crying that starts and stops without obvious cause; episodes lasting three or more hours per day and occurring at least three days per week for at least three weeks; and no failure to thrive.

The Wessel’s Criteria


This criteria relates to colic. Dr Wessel defined colic as a condition based on the rule of three. That is, unexplained episodes of ‘paroxysmal crying’ – that is a sudden recurrence or intensification of crying and symptoms, a bit like spasm or seizure – for more than three hours per day, for three days per week, for at least three weeks.

Tongue tie


Tongue-tie (ankyloglossia) is where the strip of skin connecting the baby's tongue to the floor of their mouth is shorter than usual. To breastfeed successfully, the baby needs to latch on to both the breast tissue and nipple. Babies with tongue-tie aren't able to open their mouths wide enough to latch on to the breast properly.



Vernix is a greasy white substance that coats and protects baby’s skin in the mother’s uterus. Some babies are born with lots of vernix still on their skin. It is harmless and can be washed or wiped off. Losing vernix may cause the skin to peel during the first week of life. This is normal and will go away on its own.